The plant circadian clock coordinates the responses to multiple and often simultaneous environmental challenges that the sessile plant cannot avoid. These responses must be integrated efficiently into dynamic metabolic and physiological networks essential for growth and reproduction. Many of the output pathways regulated by the circadian clock feed back to modulate clock function, leading to the appreciation of the clock as a central hub in a sophisticated regulatory network. In this Review, we discuss the circadian regulation of growth, flowering time, abiotic and biotic stress responses, and metabolism, as well as why temporal 'gating' of these processes is important to plant fitness.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank three anonymous reviewers for their comments and apologize to those whose work has not been cited owing to length constraints. This work was supported by grants from the US National Science Foundation (IOS-1202779 to K.G. and IOS-0923752, IOS-1025965 and IOS-1257722 to C.R.M.) and from the Rural Development Administration, Republic of Korea (Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Programme, Systems and Synthetic Agrobiotech Center (PJ01106904 to C.R.M.)).