Learning and memory and navigation literatures emphasize interactions between multiple memory systems: a flexible, planning-based system and a rigid, cached-value system. This has profound implications for decision-making. Recent conceptualizations of flexible decision-making employ prospection and projection arising from a network involving the hippocampus. Recent recordings from rodent hippocampus in decision-making situations have found transient forward-shifted representations. Evaluation of that prediction and subsequent action-selection probably occurs downstream (e.g. in orbitofrontal cortex, in ventral and dorsomedial striatum). Classically, striatum has been identified as a crucial component of the less-flexible, incremental system. Current evidence, however, suggests that striatum is involved in both flexible and stimulus-response decision-making, with dorsolateral striatum involved in stimulus-response strategies and ventral and dorsomedial striatum involved in goal-directed strategies.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Adam Johnson was supported by a Dissertation Fellowship from the University of Minnesota. We thank Bruce Overmeier, Paul Schrater, and the Center for Cognitive Sciences at the University of Minnesota for helpful discussions. We thank John Ferguson for helpful discussions, for comments on a draft of the manuscript, and for collecting the data used in the supplemental movie. We thank Geoff Schoenbaum for comments on a draft of the manuscript.
Copyright 2008 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.