This article presents a theoretical framework specifying the conditions under which physical proximity and interaction will lead to positive or negative relationships between (a) ethnically diverse individuals, (b) handicapped and nonhandicapped individuals, and (c) ethnically similar and nonhandicapped individuals. A review of literature supporting the theoretical framework is presented, including a meta-analysis of 98 studies conducted between 1944 and 1982 that yielded 251 findings. Three meta-analysis procedures were used: voting-method, effect-size method, and z-score method. The results of the meta-analysis indicate that (a) cooperation without intergroup competition promotes greater interpersonal attraction among both heterogeneous and homogeneous individuals than do interpersonal competition, individualistic efforts, and cooperation with intergroup competition; (b) cooperation with intergroup competition promotes greater interpersonal attraction among participants than does interpersonal competition or individualistic efforts; and (c) there tends to be no significant difference between interpersonal competition and individualistic efforts in promoting interpersonal attraction among participants. Through ANOVAs, correlational analyses, and a multiple regression analysis a number of potentially mediating or moderating variables for these results are identified. © 1983, Sage Publications. All rights reserved.