Myeloma is a malignant proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells. Although morphologically similar, several subtypes of the disease have been identified at the genetic and molecular level. These genetic subtypes are associated with unique clinicopathological features and dissimilar outcome. At the top hierarchical level, myeloma can be divided into hyperdiploid and non-hyperdiploid subtypes. The latter is mainly composed of cases harboring IgH translocations, generally associated with more aggressive clinical features and shorter survival. The three main IgH translocations in myeloma are the t(11;14)(q13;q32), t(4;14)(p16;q32) and t(14;16)(q32;q23). Trisomies and a more indolent form of the disease characterize hyperdiploid myeloma. A number of genetic progression factors have been identified including deletions of chromosomes 13 and 17 and abnormalities of chromosome 1 (1p deletion and 1q amplification). Other key drivers of cell survival and proliferation have also been identified such as nuclear factor-B-activating mutations and other deregulation factors for the cyclin-dependent pathways regulators. Further understanding of the biological subtypes of the disease has come from the application of novel techniques such as gene expression profiling and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. The combination of data arising from these studies and that previously elucidated through other mechanisms allows for most myeloma cases to be classified under one of several genetic subtypes. This paper proposes a framework for the classification of myeloma subtypes and provides recommendations for genetic testing. This group proposes that genetic testing needs to be incorporated into daily clinical practice and also as an essential component of all ongoing and future clinical trials.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
R Fonseca is a consultant for Genzyme, Celgene, BMS, Otsuka, Halozyme and Medtronic. His research was funded by Cylene and Proteolix. PL Bergsagel is on the advisory board of Amgen, Genentech, Celgene. Hid research was funded by Merck. B Van Ness serves on the IMF Scientific Advisory Board. The rest of the authors declare no conflict of interest. Shaughnessy’s work was patented by Myelogix, Genzyme and Novartis. He is a scientific advisor to Myelogix, Genzyme, Novartis and Celgene. He receives royalties from Myelogix, Genzyme, Novartis and Celgene, and is the owner of Myelogix. Bart Barlogie’s research was funded by NCI, Millennium, Celgene and Novartis. He has received honoraria from Millennium, Celgene and IMF. He is on the speakers Bureau of Millennium, Celgene and SWOG, and is a consultant for Celegene and Genzyme. He also has membership on an entity’s Board of Directors or advisory committees of IMF, MMRF and SWOG.
Copyright 2018 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- gene expression profiling
- multiple myeloma