Intragraft cytokine profile during human liver allograft rejection

Olivia M. Martinez, Sheri M. Krams, Martina Sterneck, Janeth C. Villanueva, Daniel A. Falco, Linda D. Ferrell, John Lake, John P. Roberts, Nancy L. Ascher

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Scopus citations


Forty-three human liver allograft biopsies and normal liver were directly analyzed for inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokine gene expression by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). IL-5 gene expression was predominantly present in biopsies from liver allografts with histopathological evidence of acute rejection. IL-2 gene expression was rarely observed in rejecting allografts or allografts without evidence of rejection. In contrast, IL-4 message was readily detectable in the majority of liver allografts regardless of clinical status. The inflammatory mediators IL-1/9, TNF-a, and IL-6 were detected with similar frequency in rejecting allografts and allografts without evidence of rejection. These findings suggest that inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines are produced within the allograft. Moreover, IL-5 may play a role in the local mechanisms of liver allograft rejection.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)449-456
Number of pages8
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1992
Externally publishedYes


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