In this introduction to the Special Section on Openness to Experience, we review the historical background of the construct and its measurement. We also provide a meta-analytically based review of its broader nomological net. Specifically, we review relationships with other individual differences constructs, including personality traits, interests, and cognitive ability. We highlight the various roles that openness and intellect play in educational performance, occupational attitudes and behaviors, job performance, career success, and psychological health and well-being. In doing so, we emphasize the unique contributions of the articles published in this special section (Albrecht, Dilchert, Deller, & Paulus; Connelly, Ones, Davies, & Birkland; DeYoung, Quilty, Peterson, & Gray; Roets, Cornelis, & Van Hiel; Woo, Chernyshenko, Longley, Zhang, Chiu, & Stark; Woo, Chernyshenko, Stark, & Conz). Finally, we note fruitful venues for future research involving Openness constructs.