Many states have scaled up School-Wide Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports (SW-PBIS) with the goal of improving student behavior and academic outcomes. Although the effects of SW-PBIS on behavioral and discipline outcomes have been promising, the findings for academic achievement have been inconclusive and are often limited to cross-sectional data. This paper examined the longitudinal effect of SW-PBIS on student behavioral problems and academic achievement growth in elementary and middle schools using propensity score matching. We found no statistically significant longitudinal effects of SW-PBIS on either student behavior problems or academic achievement among elementary and middle schools in this quasi-experimental design, even though the positive direction of longitudinal changes would be identified. The result raised questions about the efficacy of SW-PBIS using a statewide achievement test when scaled up to a state level. Additional research is needed to better understand the impact of SW-PBIS using rigorous scale-up designs.
- academic performance
- propensity score matching
- school-wide positive behavioral interventions and supports