In anesthetized female turkeys electrical stimulation of the ventromedial nucleus (VMN) for 30 min caused increases in plasma prolactin (Prl); with maximum increase above the prestimulation level being 33.6 ± 5.7 ng/ml for laying hens and 768.1 ± 187.6 ng/ml for incubating hens. The possibility that serotonin (5-HT) plays a role in electrical stimulation-induced Prl release was investigated after administration of methysergide, a 5-HT receptor blocker (20 mg/kg), and stimulation in either the VMN or the infundibular nuclear complex-median eminence (INF-ME) region. Electrical stimulation in both the VMN and INF-ME region caused increases (P < 0.05) in plasma Prl. Pretreatment with methysergide prevented the increase in plasma Prl that follows electrical stimulation in the VMN but had no effect on electrical stimulation-induced Prl release in the INF-ME region. We conclude that Prl release in the female turkey requires the functional integrity of serotonergic neurons within, the VMN.