BACKGROUND: Mitoxantrone plus prednisone and ixabepilone each have modest activity as monotherapy for second-line chemotherapy in patients with docetaxel-refractory castration-resistant prostate cancer. Clinical noncross-resistance was previously observed. Phase 1 testing determined the maximum tolerated dose and dose-limiting toxicities with the combination regimen; a phase 2 study was conducted to evaluate the activity of the combination. METHODS: Patients with metastatic progressive castration-resistant prostate cancer during or after 3 or more cycles of taxane-based chemotherapy enrolled in a phase 2 multicenter study of ixabepilone 35 mg/m2 and mitoxantrone 12 mg/m2 administered on Day 1 every 21 days with pegfilgrastim support, along with prednisone 5 mg twice daily. Patients were evaluated for disease response and toxicity. RESULTS: Results are reported for the 56 evaluable patients. Twenty-five (45%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 31%-59%) experienced confirmed ≥50% prostate-specific antigen (PSA) declines, 33 (59%; 95% CI, 45%-72%) experienced confirmed ≥30% PSA declines, and 8 of 36 patients (22%; 95% CI, 10%-39%) with measurable disease experienced objective responses. Median time to PSA or objective progression was 4.4 months (95% CI, 3.5-5.6), and median progression-free survival was also 4.4 months (95% CI, 3.0-6.0). Median overall survival was 12.5 months (95% CI, 10.2-15.9). Thirty-two percent of patients experienced grade 3 of 4 neutropenia, and 11% experienced grade 3 or higher neutropenic infections, including 1 treatment-related death. Grade 2 and 3 neuropathy occurred in 11% and 12.5% of patients, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that the combination of ixabepilone and mitoxantrone is both feasible and active in castration-resistant prostate cancer and requires dosing with pegfilgrastim.
- Prostate cancer