Given its complexity, high metabolic activity and excretory functions, the kidney is particularly susceptible to acute ischemic and toxin-mediated injury. Current therapies do not facilitate kidney regeneration, and there is an increasing interest in newer therapies that are based on cellular sources of kidney regeneration, such as stem cell therapy. Our understanding of cellular sources for kidney regeneration and stem cells present in the adult kidney has dramatically evolved over the recent years. Herein, we discuss the current understanding of kidney stem cells present in the adult mammalian kidney and their role in kidney regeneration. We have also summarized the best available evidence supporting the role of stem cells in kidney regeneration.