The technique of high-temperature oxidation tandem differential mobility analysis has been applied to the study of diesel nanoparticle oxidation. The oxidation rates in air of diesel nanoparticles sampled directly from the exhaust stream of a medium-duty diesel engine were measured over the temperature range of 800-1140 °C using online aerosol techniques. Three particle sizes (40, 90, and 130 nm mobility diameter) generated under engine load conditions of 10, 50, and 75% were investigated. The results show significant differences in the behavior of the 10% load particles as compared to the 50 and 75% load particles. The 10% load particles show greater size decrease at temperatures below 500 °C and significant size decrease at temperatures between 500 and 1000 °C in a non-oxidative environment, indicating release of adsorbed volatile material or thermally induced rearrangement of the agglomerate structure. Activation energies determined are 114, 109, and 108 kJ mol-1 for the 10, 50, and 75% load particles, respectively. These activation energies are lower than for flame soot (Higgins et al. J. Phys. Chem. A 2002, 106, 96), but the preexponential factors are lower by 3 orders of magnitude, and the overall oxidation rates are slower by up to a factor of 4 over the temperature range studied. Possible reasons for the differences are discussed in the text.