Leukocyte traits and exposure to ambient particulate matter air pollution in the women’s health initiative and atherosclerosis risk in communities study

Rahul Gondalia, Katelyn M. Holliday, Antoine Baldassari, Anne E. Justice, James D. Stewart, Duanping Liao, Jeff D. Yanosky, Stephanie M. Engel, Kristina M. Jordahl, Parveen Bhatti, Steve Horvath, Themistocles L. Assimes, James S. Pankow, Ellen W. Demerath, Weihua Guan, Myriam Fornage, Jan Bressler, Kari E. North, Karen N. Conneely, Yun LiLifang Hou, Andrea A. Baccarelli, Eric A. Whitsel

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Inflammatory effects of ambient particulate matter (PM) air pollution exposures may underlie PM-related increases in cardiovascular disease risk and mortality, although evidence of PM-associated leukocytosis is inconsistent and largely based on small, cross-sectional, and/or unrepresentative study populations. OBJECTIVES: Our objective was to estimate PM–leukocyte associations among U.S. women and men in the Women’s Health Initiative and Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study (n = 165,675). METHODS: We based the PM–leukocyte estimations on up to four study visits per participant, at which peripheral blood leukocytes and geocoded address-specific concentrations of PM ≤ 10, ≤2:5, and 2:5–10 lm in diameter (PM10, PM2:5, and PM2:5–10, respectively) were available. We multiply imputed missing data using chained equations and estimated PM–leukocyte count associations over daily to yearly PM exposure averaging periods using center-specific, linear, mixed, longitudinal models weighted for attrition and adjusted for sociodemographic, behavioral, meteorological, and geographic covariates. In a subset of participants with available data (n = 8,457), we also estimated PM–leukocyte proportion associations in compositional data analyses. RESULTS: We found a 12 cells=lL (95% confidence interval: −9, 33) higher leukocyte count, a 1.2% (0.6%, 1.8%) higher granulocyte proportion, and a −1:1% (−1:9%, −0:3%) lower CD8+ T-cell proportion per 10-lg=m3 increase in 1-month mean PM2:5. However, shorter-duration PM10 exposures were inversely and only modestly associated with leukocyte count. DISCUSSION: The PM2:5 –leukocyte estimates, albeit imprecise, suggest that among racially, ethnically, and environmentally diverse U.S. populations, sustained, ambient exposure to fine PM may induce subclinical, but epidemiologically important, inflammatory effects. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP5360.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number017004
JournalEnvironmental health perspectives
Volume128
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (contracts HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201-700003I, HHSN268201700004I, and HHSN268201700005I). Funding was also supported by NHLBI through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) 5RC2HL102419 and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke R01NS087541. Data from the ARIC study are available on request at https://www2.cscc.unc.edu/aric/distribution-agreements.

Funding Information:
The WHI program is funded by the NHLBI through contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN26820-1100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C. WHI-AS311 was supported by American Cancer Society award 125,299-RSG-13-100-01-CCE. All contributors to WHI science are listed at https://www.whi. org/researchers/Documents%20%20Write%20a%20Paper/WHI %20Investigator%20Long%20List.pdf. Data from the WHI are available on request at https://www.whi.org/researchers/SitePages/ Write%20a%20Paper.aspx.

Funding Information:
The authors thank the staff and participants of the ARIC study for their important contributions. The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS), National Institutes of Health (NIH), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) (contracts HHSN268201700001I, HHSN268201700002I, HHSN268201-700003I, HHSN268201700004I, and HHSN268201700005I). Funding was also supported by NHLBI through the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (ARRA) 5RC2HL102419 and National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke R01NS087541. Data from the ARIC study are available on request at https://www2.cscc.unc.edu/aric/distribution-agreements. The WHI program is funded by the NHLBI through contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN26820-1100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C. WHI-AS311 was supported by American Cancer Society award 125,299-RSG-13-100-01-CCE. All contributors to WHI science are listed at https://www.whi. org/researchers/Documents%20%20Write%20a%20Paper/WHI %20Investigator%20Long%20List.pdf. Data from the WHI are available on request at https://www.whi.org/researchers/SitePages/ Write%20a%20Paper.aspx. This work was supported by the NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) grant R01-ES020836 (L.H., A.B., E.A.W.), NHLBI contract HHSN268201100046C (K.N.C.), NIEHS grant R01-ES017794 (E.A.W.), NHLBI National Research Service Award T32-HL007055 (R.G.), NIEHS National Research Service Award T32-ES007018 (K.M.H.), and National Cancer Institute grant R25-CA094880 (K.M.J.).

Funding Information:
This work was supported by the NIH/National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences (NIEHS) grant R01-ES020836 (L.H., A.B., E.A.W.), NHLBI contract HHSN268201100046C (K.N.C.), NIEHS grant R01-ES017794 (E.A.W.), NHLBI National Research Service Award T32-HL007055 (R.G.), NIEHS National Research Service Award T32-ES007018 (K.M.H.), and National Cancer Institute grant R25-CA094880 (K.M.J.).

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