Heterogeneity within pathogen species can have important consequences for how pathogens transmit across landscapes; however, discerning different transmission routes is challenging. Here, we apply both phylodynamic and phylogenetic community ecology techniques to examine the consequences of pathogen heterogeneity on transmission by assessing subtype-specific transmission pathways in a social carnivore. We use comprehensive social and spatial network data to examine transmission pathways for three subtypes of feline immunodeficiency virus (FIVPle) in African lions (Panthera leo) at multiple scales in the Serengeti National Park, Tanzania. We used FIVPle molecular data to examine the role of social organization and lion density in shaping transmission pathways and tested to what extent vertical (i.e., father– and/or mother–offspring relationships) or horizontal (between unrelated individuals) transmission underpinned these patterns for each subtype. Using the same data, we constructed subtype-specific FIVPle co-occurrence networks and assessed what combination of social networks, spatial networks or co-infection best structured the FIVPle network. While social organization (i.e., pride) was an important component of FIVPle transmission pathways at all scales, we find that FIVPle subtypes exhibited different transmission pathways at within- and between-pride scales. A combination of social and spatial networks, coupled with consideration of subtype co-infection, was likely to be important for FIVPle transmission for the two major subtypes, but the relative contribution of each factor was strongly subtype-specific. Our study provides evidence that pathogen heterogeneity is important in understanding pathogen transmission, which could have consequences for how endemic pathogens are managed. Furthermore, we demonstrate that community phylogenetic ecology coupled with phylodynamic techniques can reveal insights into the differential evolutionary pressures acting on virus subtypes, which can manifest into landscape-level effects.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Division of Environmental Biology, Grant/ Award Number: DEB-1413925; University of Minnesota’s Office of the Vice President for Research and Academic Health Center Seed Grant; Cooperative State Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Grant/ Award Number: MINV-62-098; University of Minnesota MnDrive program
N.F.J. and M.E.C. were funded by National Science Foundation (DEB-1413925); M.E.C. was funded by the University of Minnesota’s Office of the Vice President for Research and Academic Health Center Seed Grant, and the Cooperative State Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, under Project No: MINV-62-098. K.V. was funded by the University of Minnesota MnDrive program. We thank Roman Biek and the Infectious Disease Evolution Across Scales (IDEAS) Research Coordination Network research exchange for additional training.
© 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society
- OTU networks
- community ecology
- feline immunodeficiency virus
- generalized dissimilarity modelling
- landscape ecology
- phylogenetic diversity
- social systems
- transmission mode
- wildlife disease