Lithogenic Risk Factors in the Morbidly Obese Population

Branden G. Duffey, Renato N. Pedro, Carly Kriedberg, Derek Weiland, Jonathan Melquist, Sayeed Ikramuddin, Todd Kellogg, Antoine A. Makhlouf, Manoj Monga

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

51 Scopus citations


Purpose: To our knowledge baseline lithogenic risk factors in the morbidly obese population are currently unknown. Prior studies evaluated known stone formers and correlated risk with increasing body mass index. We describe risk factors for urinary stone formation in a group of unselected morbidly obese patients. Materials and Methods: Patients scheduled for gastric bypass provided a 24-hour urine collection before surgery. Patient demographics, medications and supplement consumption were recorded. A dietary intake diary was converted into daily kcal, Ca, Na and protein consumption. Differences between groups based on gender, history of diabetes or nephrolithiasis, diuretic use and Ca supplementation were evaluated. Correlation of stone risk parameters with body mass index was evaluated. Results: A total of 45 patients provided samples for analysis. Mean ± SD body mass index was 49.5 ± 9.1 kg/m2 and mean age was 47.0 ± 10.5 years. Overall 97.8% of patients had at least 1 lithogenic risk factor identified. Low urinary volume was the most common abnormality, affecting 71.1% of patients. Male patients excreted significantly more Ox (p = 0.0014), Na (p = 0.020), PO4 (p = 0.0083) and SO4 (p = 0.0014) than females. Patients with a history of nephrolithiasis excreted significantly more oxalate (p = 0.018) and had higher relative Na urate supersaturation (p = 0.00093) than nonstone formers. Hydrochlorothiazide use was associated with significantly increased Na urate relative supersaturation (p = 0.0097). Increasing body mass index was inversely associated with Mg (r = -0.38, p = 0.01) and brushite (r = -0.30, p = 0.04). Conclusions: Of our cohort of morbidly obese patients 98% had at least 1 lithogenic risk factor identified on 24-hour urine collection. This study identified a high urinary stone risk in the morbidly obese and suggests possible avenues for dietary and/or pharmacological preventive measures. Future studies will determine how bariatric surgery alters these risk factors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1401-1406
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 1 2008


  • diet
  • kidney
  • kidney calculi
  • morbid
  • obesity


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