Localized hypertrophic neuropathy is a rare Schwann cell proliferation that usually affects single nerves from the extremities, and it is of unclear etiology in its pure form. RASopathies are a defined group of genetic diseases with overlapping clinical features, usually secondary to germline mutations in genes encoding either components or regulators of the RAS/MAPK pathway. Herein, we report an 11-year-old boy presenting with café au lait spots and right leg length discrepancy. A fascicular nerve biopsy of the tibial nerve demonstrated a Schwann cell proliferation with prominent onion-bulb formation, satisfying criteria for localized hypertrophic neuropathy. Molecular genetic analysis demonstrated identical KRAS mutations (c38_40dupGCG) in the peripheral nerve lesion and melanocytes from café au lait spots, but not in blood, supporting a diagnosis of a KRAS-mediated rasopathy with mosaicism. Immunohistochemical staining in the peripheral nerve lesion demonstrated strong pERK staining consistent with downstream MAPK pathway activation. This report suggests that at least a subset of localized hypertrophic neuropathies are bonafide, well-differentiated Schwann cell neoplasms developing through oncogenic RAS signaling, which provides new insights into the controversial entity historically known as localized hypertrophic neuropathy.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||5|
|Journal||Journal of neuropathology and experimental neurology|
|State||Published - Jun 1 2020|
- Localized hypertrophic neuropathy
- Peripheral nerve
- Schwann cell