Tetralogy of Fallot with absent pulmonary valve (TOF-APV) is a rare form of tetralogy with unique challenges due to the combination of pulmonary annular stenosis, severe pulmonary regurgitation, and airway compression secondary to aneurysmal dilatation of the pulmonary arteries. Data on the long-term outcomes of repaired TOF-APV are scarce. We used the Pediatric Cardiac Care Consortium (PCCC), a large US-based registry, to describe the postrepair transplant-free survival of patients with TOF-APV. We queried the PCCC for patients operated for TOF-APV between 1982 and 2003. Death or transplant events were ascertained from the PCCC and by linkage with the US National Death Index and the Organ Procurement Transplantation Network through December 2019. A total of 126 patients were identified with TOF-APV repair (primary n = 119, staged n = 7). The majority of them were repaired with a right ventricular to pulmonary artery conduit (n = 80, 64%) and 43 (34%) with transannular patch. In-hospital mortality occurred in 31 patients (25%); post discharge and over a median period of 19 years (IQR 0.37 to 23.7 years), 5 patients died and 2 underwent heart transplant, one of whom subsequently died. The 25-year transplant-free survival post discharge after TOF-APV repair was 92%, which was similar with the outcome of patients with simple TOF undergoing non-valve sparing procedures (94% log-rank test p = 0.455; aHR 1.37; 95% CI: 0.63 to 2.97, p = 0.432). In conclusion, early in-hospital mortality is high for TOF-APV; however, once repaired and survived to discharge, long term survival is similar to simple TOF with non-valve sparing procedures.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This study was supported in part by grants from the National Institute of Health's National Heart, Lung, Blood Institute Bethesda, Maryland ( R01 HL122392 ) and National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences Bethesda, Maryland ( UL1TR002494 ) as well as the Department of Defense Detrick, Maryland ( PR180683 ).