Purpose: This study aims to describe the longitudinal individual and environmental predictors of stopping smoking among a group of young adult smokers. Methods: From a longitudinal population-based cohort of Midwestern youth, we analyzed semi-annual surveys when study participants were between the ages of 18 and 21 years. Using data from 2001-2008, we restricted analyses to individuals who, at age 18 years, reported smoking between 1 and 30 days in the previous month (n = 1,022). We used generalized linear mixed modeling to analyze demographic, attitudinal, and social-environmental predictors of stopping smoking over time. Results: After adjusting for smoking frequency at baseline, demographic and attitudinal factors that were associated with stopping smoking over time included increased age and attending college; male gender, smoking frequency and agreeing that cigarettes are calming were significantly associated with continued smoking. Social-environmental factors associated with stopping smoking over time included a household ban on smoking and living in a state with a clean indoor air policy; factors associated with continued smoking included living with a smoker and having close friends who smoke. Conclusions: Both individual and social-environmental factors can serve as risk and protective factors for stopping smoking between ages 18 and 21 years. These factors should be used to refine more effective smoking cessation and prevention interventions in young adults.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This research was funded by the National Cancer Institute (Grant R01 CA86191 ; Jean Forster, Principal Investigator) and ClearWay Minnesota (Grant RC-2007-0018 ; Jean Forster and Debra Bernat, Co-Principal Investigators).
- Longitudinal survey
- Smoking cessation
- Young adult