Low levels of sodium and potassium in the water from wetlands in Minnesota that contained malformed frogs affect the rate of Xenopus development

Eric A E Garber, Judith L. Erb, Joseph Magner, Gerald Larsen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

Water samples were collected between 1999 and 2000 from wetlands in Minnesota that contained malformed frogs. The water samples were analyzed for 14 minerals/ions and screened for the presence of biologically active compounds using Xenopus laevis. Results indicated that water from two sites, CWB and ROI2, induced severe retardation with embryo lengths reduced 20% after 96 hr of development. The developmental delay observed with water from ROI2 was alleviated by supplementation with sodium, while both sodium and potassium alleviated the developmental delay observed with water whose mineral content mimicked that of CWB. Seasonal fluctuations in the sodium and potassium content at ROI2 and NEY correlated with changes in the rates of Xenopus development. Xenopus embryos reared on water from ROI2 for 120 hr displayed gut malformations not present in embryos reared on a synthetic media designed to mimic the mineral content of the water from ROI2. Embryos reared on water from ROI2 supplemented with minerals at levels comparable to that routinely employed in the rearing of Xenopus were neither retarded nor malformed. It is proposed that climate driven hydrology may influence the mineral composition at selected wetlands and delay development which may alter window(s) of susceptibility towards biologically active agents and the occurrence of malformed frogs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)45-64
Number of pages20
JournalEnvironmental Monitoring and Assessment
Volume90
Issue number1-3
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2004

Keywords

  • Frog Embryo Teratogenesis Assay: Xenopus (FETAX)
  • Frog malformations
  • Minnesota
  • Potassium
  • Sodium

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