Background: Ingested proteins are known to stimulate a rise in insulin and glucagon concentrations. In our effort to explain this effect, we have begun to measure the effect of individual amino acids. Objectives: The objectives were to determine the effect of lysine ingestion on insulin and glucagon concentrations and whether the effect is moderated by glucose ingestion. Design: Thirteen healthy subjects were studied on 4 occasions. Water, 25 g glucose, 1 mmol lysine/kg lean body mass, or lysine plus glucose was given on separate occasions at 0800 after a 12-h fast. Serum lysine, glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured during a 2.5-h period. The amount of lysine provided was equivalent to that present in a 672-g (24-oz) steak. Results: Lysine ingestion resulted in an ≈3-fold increase in lysine concentration and in a small decrease in glucose concentration. When lysine was ingested with glucose, the 2.5-h glucose area response decreased by 44% (P < 0.02). Lysine alone increased the insulin area response modestly; the insulin increase when lysine was ingested with glucose was similar to that when only glucose was ingested. Lysine stimulated an increase in glucagon (P < 0.02), whereas glucose decreased glucagon. Conclusions: Lysine ingestion results in a small decrease in serum glucose and an increase in glucagon and insulin concentrations. Lysine ingested with glucose dramatically attenuated the glucose-stimulated glucose response, but there was no change in insulin response. Whether similar effects will be observed with more physiologic doses of lysine remains to be determined.