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We have explored the effect of magnetic rare-earth dopants substitutionally incorporated on the Ba sites of BaSnO3 in terms of electronic transport, magnetism, and optical properties. We show that for Ba0.92R0.08SnO3 thin films (where R=La,Pr,Nd,Gd), there is a linear increase of mobility with carrier concentration across all doping schemes. La-doped films have the highest mobilities, followed by Pr- and Nd-doped films. Gd-doped samples have the largest ionic size mismatch with the Ba site and correspondingly the lowest carrier concentrations and electron mobilities. However, crystallinity does not appear to be a strong predictor of transport phenomena; our results suggest that point defects more than grain boundaries are key ingredients in tuning the conduction of BaSnO3 films grown by pulsed laser deposition. Pronounced, nonhysteretic x-ray magnetic dichroism signals are observed for Pr-, Nd-, and Gd-doped samples, indicating paramagnetism. Finally, we probe the optical constants for each of the BaSnO3 doping schemes and note that there is little change in the transmittance across all samples. Together these results shed light on conduction mechanisms in BaSnO3 doped with rare-earth cations.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Purnima P. Balakrishnan, Charles L. Flint, Matthew T. Gray, Michael J. Veit, and Useong Kim for useful discussions. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. 1762971. Part of this work was performed at the Stanford Nano Shared Facilities (SNSF), supported by the National Science Foundation under Award No. ECCS-1542152. Additional support was granted by the Chemical Imaging Initiative, a Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). PNNL is a multiprogram national laboratory operated by Battelle for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under Contract No. DE-AC05-76RL01830. A portion of the research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at PNNL. RBS was carried out in the Characterization Facility, University of Minnesota, which receives partial support from NSF through the MRSEC program. The work at UMN acknowledges support from the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR) through Grant No. FA9550-19-1-0245. This research used resources of the Advanced Light Source, which is a DOE Office of Science User Facility under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.
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