Since the first observation of soybean aphid, Aphis glycines Matsumura (Hemiptera: Aphididae), in North America in 2000, it has become the most economically damaging insect of soybean in the Upper Midwest of the United States. For the last 17 yr, soybean aphid management has relied almost entirely on the use of foliar-applied broad-spectrum insecticides. However, in 2015 in Minnesota, failures of foliar-applied pyrethroid insecticides were reported and pyrethroid resistance was confirmed with laboratory bioassays using lambda-cyhalothrin and bifenthrin. In 2016 and 2017, further reports of failures of pyrethroid insecticides and/or laboratory confirmation of resistance occurred in Iowa, North Dakota, South Dakota, and Manitoba. In response to the challenge posed by insecticide-resistant soybean aphids, we recommend several management strategies for minimizing further development of resistance and subsequent pest-induced crop losses: 1) scout and use the economic threshold to determine when to apply insecticides, 2) apply the insecticides properly, 3) assess efficacy 3-5 d after application, and 4) alternate to a different insecticide group if another application is required. In the long term, soybean aphid management must move beyond insecticide-based management to true integrated pest management by incorporating multiple tactics.
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We thank Anthony Hanson and three anonymous reviewers for providing critical reviews of an earlier version of this paper and Courtney Garrison for summary of the USDA data. We also thank James Menger, Ian MacRae, Philip Glogoza, Anitha Chirumamilla, John Gavloski, Patrick Beauzay, and Lesley Lubenow for assistance with our survey efforts in 2017. This work was supported in part by the Minnesota Soybean Research and Promotion Council, Iowa Soybean Association, North Dakota Soybean Council, and South Dakota Soybean Research and Promotion Council.
- Aphis glycines
- Integrated pest management
- Resistance management