Forty-six patients who had a neuromuscular spinal deformity were treated with arthrodesis and Luque segmental spinal instrumentation and were followed for an average of three years. Twenty-two patients had cerebral palsy and twenty-four had another neuromuscular disease. In thirty-nine patients, the arthrodesis was extended to the sacrum. Eleven patients who had severe scoliosis as well as pelvic obliquity and decompensation of the torso had a combined anterior and posterior arthrodesis; the other thirty-five patients had a one-stage posterior procedure. Preoperatively, the average scoliosis was 74 degrees; this was corrected to 39 degrees at follow-up. Final corrections were similar for scoliosis and were better for pelvic obliquity and decompensation of the torso in patients who had combined anterior and posterior arthrodesis. The results for scoliosis and pelvic obliquity in patients who had a spastic deformity were similar to the results in patients who had a flaccid deformity. Correction of decompensation of the torso was better in patients who had a spastic deformity. Postoperatively, a brace was used in half of the patients in each group; this did not appear to affect the amount of correction in either group, although the result may have been influenced by the selection process. The rate of complications was 48 per cent. Pseudoarthrosis occurred in three patients (6.5 per cent). There were no major neurological deficits related to the correction or to the use of sublaminar wires. Three patients died, one in the immediate postoperative period and the other two at eighteen months and four years after the original procedure, due to causes unrelated to the operation.