Maternal HIV and child anthropometric outcomes over time: An analysis of Zimbabwe demographic health surveys

Emily A. Groene, Robert J. Valeris-Chacin, Anna M. Stadelman, Sandra E. Safo, Sarah E. Cusick

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Objective(s): To understand the association between children’s anthropometric measures and maternal HIV status in Zimbabwe and to determine whether these relationships changed over time. Design: Data from Demographic Health Surveys in Zimbabwe rounds 2005, 2010, and 2015 were used to conduct cross-sectional analyses of child anthropometric measures (stunting, underweight, and wasting). Methods: Using separate logistic regression models for each of the anthropometric measures, we estimated the adjusted prevalence odds ratio (OR) of stunting, underweight, and wasting in children according to maternal HIV status. Moreover, we evaluated an interaction by survey year to evaluate change over time. Results: Children of mothers with HIV had 32% greater odds [OR ¼ 1.32, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.16 – 1.5] of stunting, 27% greater odds (OR ¼ 1.27, 95% CI 1.1 – 1.48) of underweight status and 7% greater odds (OR ¼ 1.07, 95% CI 0.81 – 1.42) of wasting status, than children of mothers without HIV. These associations between maternal HIV status and child undernutrition did not differ by year (P > 0.05 for all interaction terms). Conclusion: In Zimbabwe, having a mother who tested positive for HIV at the time of the survey has been associated with greater child undernutrition over the last two decades with no significant change by survey round. This emphasizes the need for continued programming to address nutritional deficiencies, sanitation, and infectious disease prevention in this high-risk population. The greatest impact of maternal HIV status has been on child stunting and underweight, associated with poor long-term child development.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)477-484
Number of pages8
JournalAIDS
Volume35
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Mar 1 2021

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Minnesota Population Center (P2C HD041023) funded through a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). This research was also supported by the United States Fogarty International Center (K01TW010268, R25TW009345) and the National Institutes of Health?s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (TL1TR002493, UL1TR002494).

Funding Information:
The authors gratefully acknowledge support from the Minnesota Population Center (P2C HD041023) funded through a grant from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute for Child Health and Human Development (NICHD). This research was also supported by the United States Fogarty International Center (K01TW010268, R25TW009345) and the National Institutes of Health’s National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (TL1TR002493, UL1TR002494).

Publisher Copyright:
Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

Keywords

  • Child development
  • Epidemiology
  • HIV
  • Undernutrition
  • Zimbabwe

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural

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