Recently, hyperpolarized substrates generated through dynamic nuclear polarization have been introduced to study in vivo metabolism. Injection of hyperpolarized [1- 13C] pyruvate, the most widely used substrate, allows detection of time courses of [1- 13C] pyruvate and its metabolic products, such as [1- 13C] lactate and 13C-bicarbonate, in various organs. However, quantitative metabolic modeling of in vivo data to measure specific metabolic rates remains challenging without measuring the input function. In this study, we demonstrate that the input function of [1- 13C] pyruvate can be measured in vivo in the rat carotid artery using an implantable coil.
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Acknowledgments We thank Manda Vollmers and Emily Colonna, and William Manders from Oxford Instruments Biotools for technical support. The authors thank Dr. Josef Granwehr for helpful discussions. This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health: R01 NS38672, P41 RR008079, P41 EB015894, and the W.M. Keck Foundation and by the Director, Office of Science, Office of Basis Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231. Funding for NMR instrumentation was provided by the Office of the Vice President for Research, the Medical School, the College of Biological Science, NIH, NSF, and the Minnesota Medical Foundation.