The process of e+e-→pp̄ is studied at 22 center-of-mass energy points (s) from 2.00 to 3.08 GeV, exploiting 688.5 pb-1 of data collected with the BESIII detector operating at the BEPCII collider. The Born cross section (σpp̄) of e+e-→pp̄ is measured with the energy-scan technique and it is found to be consistent with previously published data, but with much improved accuracy. In addition, the electromagnetic form-factor ratio (|GE/GM|) and the value of the effective (|Geff|), electric (|GE|), and magnetic (|GM|) form factors are measured by studying the helicity angle of the proton at 16 center-of-mass energy points. |GE/GM| and |GM| are determined with high accuracy, providing uncertainties comparable to data in the spacelike region, and |GE| is measured for the first time. We reach unprecedented accuracy, and precision results in the timelike region provide information to improve our understanding of the proton inner structure and to test theoretical models which depend on nonperturbative quantum chromodynamics.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The BESIII Collaboration thanks the staff of BEPCII and the IHEP computing center for their strong support. This work is supported in part by National Key Basic Research Program of China under Contract No. 2015CB856700; National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) under Contracts No. 11335008, No. 11375170, No. 11425524, No. 11475164, No. 11475169, No. 11605196, No. 11605198, No. 11625523, No. 11635010, No. 11705192, No. 11735014; the Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) Large-Scale Scientific Facility Program; the CAS Center for Excellence in Particle Physics (CCEPP); Joint Large-Scale Scientific Facility Funds of the NSFC and CAS under Contracts No. U1532102, No. U1532257, No. U1532258, No. U1732263, No. U1832103; CAS Key Research Program of Frontier Sciences under Contracts No. QYZDJ-SSW-SLH003, No. QYZDJ-SSW-SLH040; 100 Talents Program of CAS; INPAC and Shanghai Key Laboratory for Particle Physics and Cosmology; German Research Foundation DFG under Contract No. Collaborative Research Center CRC 1044, FOR 2359; Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Italy; Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen (KNAW) under Contract No. 530-4CDP03; Ministry of Development of Turkey under Contract No. DPT2006K-120470; National Science and Technology fund; The Swedish Research Council; The Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden); U.S. Department of Energy under Contracts No. DE-FG02-05ER41374, No. DE-SC-0010118, No. DE-SC-0010504, No. DE-SC-0012069; University of Groningen (RuG) and the Helmholtzzentrum fuer Schwerionenforschung GmbH (GSI), Darmstadt.