Measurements of Outgassing from PM2.5 Collected in Xi'an, China Through Soft X-Ray-Radiolysis

Changhyuk Kim, Sheng Chieh Chen, Jiamao Zhou, Junji Cao, David Y.H. Pui

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


PM2.5 is an important global air pollution issue. PM2.5 causes various problems on the environment and human health. Even though PM2.5 of the outdoor air is eliminated by particulate air filters, the chemicals adsorbed on the filtered PM2.5 can be outgassed and introduced into the semiconductor manufacturing facilities and processes, thus causing defects on the semiconductor chips by producing particles and haze as airborne molecular contamination. Therefore, estimating the amount of the outgassing from PM2.5 is a very important factor to control gaseous contaminants in the semiconductor industry. In this paper, the PM2.5 samples at different PM2.5 mass loadings were collected in Xi'an, China and evaluated using the soft X-ray radiolysis method for determining the relation between the outgassing and the PM2.5 mass loading. The PM2.5 samples were also analyzed by several methods for quantifying organic and elemental carbons, water soluble ions, and organic compounds in the PM2.5 samples. The outgassing measured by the soft X-ray method increased linearly with the PM2.5 mass loading, and the chemical analyses explained that the organic carbon (OC) was dominantly detected by the soft X-ray method in the current study. Moreover, the sampling location of the PM2.5 affected on the organic compounds of the PM2.5.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number8732435
Pages (from-to)259-266
Number of pages8
JournalIEEE Transactions on Semiconductor Manufacturing
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2019

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Manuscript received April 29, 2019; accepted May 31, 2019. Date of publication June 6, 2019; date of current version August 2, 2019. This work was supported by the Center for Filtration Research under Grant 3000 11137 05306727. (Corresponding author: Changhyuk Kim.) C. Kim was with the Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55414 USA. He is now with the Department of Environmental Engineering, Pusan National University, Busan 46241, South Korea (e-mail:

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