S100A9 is a calcium-binding protein and subunit of antimicrobial calprotectin complex (S100A8/A9). Produced by neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages and keratinocytes, S100A9 expression increases in response to inflammation. For example, IL-1α produced by epithelial cells acts autonomously on the same cells to induce the expression of S100A8/A9 and cellular differentiation. Whereas it is well known that IL-1α and members of the IL-10 family of cytokines upregulate S100A8 and S100A9 in several cell lineages, the pathway and mechanism of IL-1α-dependent transcriptional control of S100A9 in epithelial cells are not established. Modeled using human epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), IL-1α stimulated the phosphorylation of p38 MAPK and induced S100A9 expression, which was blocked by IL-1 receptor antagonist, RNAi suppression of p38, or a p38 MAPK inhibitor. Transcription of S100A9 in HaCaT cells depended on nucleotides -. 94 to -. 53 in the upstream promoter region, based upon the use of deletion constructs and luciferase reporter activity. Within the responsive promoter region, IL-1α increased the binding activity of CCAAT/enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ). Mutated C/EBPβ binding sequences or C/EBPβ-specific siRNA inhibited the S100A9 transcriptional response. Hence, IL-1α is strongly suggested to increase S100A9 expression in a human epidermal keratinocyte cell line by signaling through the IL-1 receptor and p38 MAPK, increasing C/EBPβ-dependent transcriptional activity.
|Original language||English (US)|
|Number of pages||9|
|Journal||Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Gene Regulatory Mechanisms|
|State||Published - Sep 1 2013|