Background: Hypertension and diabetes have been associated with inefficient arsenic metabolism, primarily through studies undertaken in populations exposed through drinking water. Recently, rice has been recognized as a source of arsenic exposure, but it remains unclear whether populations with high rice consumption but no known water exposure are at risk for the health problems associated with inefficient arsenic metabolism. Methods: The relationships between arsenic metabolism efficiency (% inorganic arsenic, % monomethylarsenate and % dimethylarsinate in urine) and three hypertension- and seven diabetes-related traits were estimated among 12 609 participants of the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL). A two-sample Mendelian randomization approach incorporated genotype-arsenic metabolism relationships from literature, and genotype-trait relationships from HCHS/SOL, with a mixed-effect linear model. Analyses were stratified by rice consumption and smoking. Results: Among never smokers with high rice consumption, each percentage point increase in was associated with increases of 1.96 mmHg systolic blood pressure (P = 0.034) and 1.85 mmHg inorganic arsenic diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.003). Monomethylarsenate was associated with increased systolic (1.64 mmHg/percentage point increase; P = 0.021) and diastolic (1.33 mmHg/percentage point increase; P = 0.005) blood pressure. Dimethylarsinate, a marker of efficient metabolism, was associated with lower systolic (-0.92 mmHg/percentage point increase; P = 0.025) and diastolic (-0.79 mmHg/percentage point increase; P = 0.004) blood pressure. Among low rice consumers and ever smokers, the results were consistent with no association. Evidence for a relationship with diabetes was equivocal. Conclusions: Less efficient arsenic metabolism was associated with increased blood pressure among never smokers with high rice consumption, suggesting that arsenic exposure through rice may contribute to high blood pressure in the Hispanic/Latino community.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
The authors thank the staff and participants of HCHS/SOL for their important contributions. The Hispanic Community Health Study/ Study of Latinos was carried out as a collaborative study supported by contracts from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) to the University of North Carolina (N01-HC65233), University of Miami (N01-HC65234), Albert Einstein College of Medicine (N01- HC65235), Northwestern University (N01- HC65236) and San Diego State University (N01-HC65237). The following Institutes/Centers/Offices contribute to the HCHS/SOL through a transfer of funds to the NHLBI: National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities, National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders, National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research, National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH Institution-Office of Dietary Supplements. This study was also supported by the Intramural Program of the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases. The Genetic Analysis Center at the University of Washington was supported by NHLBI and NIDCR contracts (HHSN268201300005C AM03 and MOD03). This work was supported by the National Institutes of Health [grant number 5R25-CA057699 and 2T32-CA057699-26 to MSB, grant number N01-HC65233 to HCHS/SOL at UNC, grant number N01-HC65234 to HCHS/SOL at the University of Miami, grant number N01- HC65235 to HCHS/SOL at Albert Einstein College of Medicine, grant number N01-HC65236 to HCHS/SOL at Northwestern and grant number N01-HC65237 to HCHS/SOL at San Diego State University]
© 2019 The Author(s) 2019; all rights reserved. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Epidemiological Association.
- Hispanic/Latino health
- Mendelian randomization
- arsenic metabolism
- arsenic methylation
- blood pressure
- cardiovascular disease