OBJECTIVE - To assess in diabetic subjects the effects of dietary sucrose on glycemia and lipemia. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - Twelve type II diabetic subjects consumed, in random order, two isocaloric, 55% carbohydrate study diets for 28 days. In one diet, 19% of energy was derived from sucrose. In the other diet, <3% of energy was derived from sucrose, and carbohydrate energy came primarily from starch. Both study diets were composed of common foods. All meals were prepared in a metabolic kitchen where foods were weighed during meal preparation. RESULTS - No significant differences were noted between the study diets at any time point in mean plasma glucose. At day 28, mean plasma glucose values for the sucrose diet were 9.6 ± 0.5 mM and for the starch diet were 9.4 ± 0.6 mM (P = 0.63). Also, no significant differences were observed between the study diets in urine glucose; fasting serum total, HDL, or LDL cholesterol; fasting serum TG; or peak postprandial serum TG. CONCLUSIONS - A high sucrose diet did not adversely affect glycemia or lipemia in type II diabetic subjects.