Plants respond to their external environment to optimize their nutrition and production potential to minimize the food security issues and support sustainable agriculture system. Phosphorus (P) is an important nutrient for plants and is involved in plant metabolic processes. It is mostly available as orthophosphate and has a tendency to form complexes with cations. It has low mobility in soil, thus becoming unavailable for plant uptake that causes a reduction in plant growth and yield. Besides free P, phytate is the major form of organic P in soil and plant tissues. Phytases obtained from different sources, that is, plants, animals, and microorganisms, catalyze the hydrolysis of phytate and release available forms of inorganic P. The knowledge of mechanisms involved in catalytic activity of phytase obtained from microorganisms in soil is limited. This review summarizes the role of microbial phytase in releasing organic P by hydrolysis of phytate and factors affecting its activity in the soil.
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- organic P