Improvements in neutrophil chemotaxis assays have advanced our understanding of the mechanisms of neutrophil recruitment; however, traditional methods limit biologic inquiry in important areas. We report a microfluidic technology that enables neutrophil purification and chemotaxis on-chip within minutes, using nanoliters of whole blood, and only requires a micropipette to operate. The low sample volume requirements and novel lid-based method for initiating the gradient of chemoattractant enabled the measurement of human neutrophil migration on a cell monolayer to probe the adherent and migratory states of neutrophils under inflammatory conditions; mouse neutrophil chemotaxis without sacrificing the animal; and both 2D and 3D neutrophil chemotaxis. First, the neutrophil chemotaxis on endothelial cells revealed 2 distinct neutrophil phenotypes, showing that endothelial cell-neutrophil interactions influence neutrophil chemotactic behavior. Second, we validated the mouse neutrophil chemotaxis assay by comparing the adhesion and chemotaxis of neutrophils from chronically inflamed and wild-type mice; we observed significantly higher neutrophil adhesion in blood obtained from chronically inflamed mice. Third, we show that 2D and 3D neutrophil chemotaxis can be directly compared using our technique. These methods allow for new avenues of research while reducing the complexity, time, and sample volume requirements to perform neutrophil chemotaxis assays.