This chapter includes a review of the recent literature on polymer microscopy. It includes the basic principles and current challenges of the techniques, as well as the experimental aspects of sample preparation and observation. First, the chapter presents some of the most recent applications of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and allied techniques to polymer materials compiled from 2000 to the present. The focus is on nonconventional techniques such as electron holography, in situ TEM, scanning TEM (STEM), EELS, wet-STEM, cryogenic TEM (cryo-TEM), Zcontrast, high angle annular dark field (HAADF)-STEM, electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), and low and high voltage TEM. The chapter also includes a very detailed section devoted to three-dimensional (3D) imaging. Obtaining 3D images involves specialized microscopes or attachments as well as additional image processing and 3D-rendering algorithms.
- Polymer microscopy
- Three-dimensional (3D) imaging
- Three-dimensional microscopy
- Transmission electron microscopy (TEM)