Mitochondrial redox metabolism has long been recognized as being central to the effects of aging and the development of age-related pathologies in the major oxidative organs. Consistent evidence has shown that exercise is able to retard the onset and impede the progression of aging by modifying mitochondrial oxidant-antioxidant homeostasis. Here we provide a broad overview of the research evidence showing the relationship between mitochondrial redox metabolism, aging and exercise. We address part aspects of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, from superoxide production to ROS detoxification, especially antioxidant enzymes and uncoupling protein. Furthermore, we describe mitochondrial remodeling response to aging and exercise, which is accompanied by bioenergetics and redox regulation. In addition, potential mechanisms for redox signaling involved in mitochondrial remodeling and redox metabolism regulation are also reviewed.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
This work was supported by research grants from the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31110103919 , 31200894 , 31000523 , 30771048 , 30470837 , 31071040 , and 30270638 ), Tianjin Municipal Sci-tech-innovation Base Project (No. 10SYSYJC28400), Tianjin Science and Technology Planning Project (No. 12JCQNJC07900), and General Administration of Sport of China Basic Project (No. 10B058).
- Mitochondrial remodeling
- Reactive oxygen species