A hospital cafeteria-associated outbreak of gastroenteritis due to Salmonella enterica serotype Infantis was retrospectively evaluated using modified repetitive element PCR (rep-PCR) fingerprinting with the ERIC2 and BOXA1R primers and computer-assisted gel analysis and dendrogram construction. Rep-PCR yielded objective between-cycler, same-strain similarity values of from 92% (composite fingerprints) to 96% (ERIC2 fingerprints). The 70 Salmonella isolates (which included 19 serotype Infantis isolates from the hospital outbreak, 10 other serotype Infantis isolates, and 41 isolates representing 14 other serotypes) were resolved well to the serotype level with each of the three fingerprint types (ERIC2, BOXA1R, and composite). Rep-PCR typing uncovered several historical serotyping errors and provided presumptive serotype assignments for other isolates with incomplete or undetermined serotypes. Analysis of replicate fingerprints for each isolate, as generated on two different thermal cyclers, indicated that most of the seeming subserotype discrimination noted in single-cycler dendrograms actually represented assay variability, since it was not reproducible in combined-cycler dendrograms. Rep-PCR typing, which would have been able to identify the presence of the hospital-associated serotype Infantis outbreak after the second outbreak isolate, could be used as a simple surrogate for serotyping by clinical microbiology laboratories that are equipped for diagnostic PCR.