Herdmania litoralis is a heterotrophic, sand-dwelling dinoflagellate with morphological characters that do not provide clear evidence for its systematic position in any existing family of dinoflagellates. Protoperidinium minutum is a heterotrophic, planktonic species that has a typical tabulation for the genus Protoperidinium. In order to infer the phylogenetic positions of these two species more confidently, we characterized the thecal plate patterns and determined small-subunit and large-subunit ribosomal DNA sequences (SSU rDNA and LSU rDNA, respectively) from both species. Intraindividual and intraspecific diversity of SSU and LSU rDNA data were characterized in H. litoralis using a combination of single-cell PCR approaches and analyses of PCR clones derived from multi-cell DNA extractions. The results of the molecular phylogenetic analyses demonstrated a novel, well-supported clade comprising both sand-dwelling species (H. litoralis and Thecadinium dragescoi) and planktonic species (P. minutum). Because the establishment of this clade also demonstrated that P. minutum is not a member of Protoperidinium, we reinstated and emended the genus Archaeperidinium Jörgensen 1912.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
was supported by a postdoctoral research salary to A.Y. and M.H. from the Assembling the Tree of Life grant (NSF #EF-0629624) and operating funds to B.S.L. from the National Science and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC 283091-09); B.S.L. is a fellow of the Canadian Institute for Advanced Research, Program in Integrated Microbial Biodiversity. This work was also partly supported by the Grant-in-Aid (16370039) from the MEXT and by the 21st Century Center of Excellence (COE) Program on ‘Neo-Science of Natural History’ (Program Leader: Hisatake Okada) at Hokkaido University financed by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology (MEXT), Japan.
- Herdmania litoralis
- Heterotrophic dinoflagellates
- Intraspecific variability
- LSU rDNA
- Protoperidinium minutum
- SSU rDNA
- Single-cell PCR
- Thecadinium dragescoi