Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an angiogenic mitogen, specific for endothelial cells. Hypoxia-induced VEGF in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes leads to autocrine and paracrine stimulation, respectively. During myocardial ischemia, VEGF is upregulated in the endothelium and myocardium, and may mediate angiogenesis. Morphine sulfate is commonly used in pain relief for patients with acute myocardial infarction. We investigated the effect of morphine sulfate on VEGF expression in cultured endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes subjected to hypoxia. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays showed that morphine sulfate significantly inhibited hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in mouse heart micro-vascular endothelial cells (SMHEC4), primary cultures of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and in primary cultures of rat cardiac myocytes (P<0.05). Real time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction showed that morphine treatment (100 ng/ml) of hypoxic HUVECs resulted in a significant reduction in mRNA levels of VEGF121 and VEGF165 isoforms. Transfection of HUVECs with a human VEGF promoter-luciferase construct showed that hypoxia-induced transcriptional activation of VEGF was markedly inhibited by morphine sulfate (P<0.05). Phosphatidyl inositol-3 kinase and protein kinase C-mediated activation of the VEGF promoter was also inhibited by morphine. The opioid antagonist naloxone significantly reversed the inhibitory effects of morphine in endothelial cells suggesting the involvement of opioid receptors. Our results show that the inhibitory effects of morphine on hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in endothelial cells and cardiac myocytes can lead to a decrease in the autocrine and paracrine stimulation and hence limit neovascularization of the ischemic myocardium.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Supported by grants from the Department of Defence/Veterans Affairs, National Institute of Health (Grant No: P50-DA 11806-01 and R01 DA 12104) and North Memorial Medical Center, Robbinsdale, MN, USA.