We compared the clinical outcomes of adults with acute leukemia that received single-unit umbilical cord blood transplantation (sUCBT) after conditioning with a busulfan/antithymocyte globulin (BU-ATG)-based regimen at University Hospital La Fe (n= 102) or double-unit UCBT (dUCBT) after conditioning with a total body irradiation (TBI)-based regimen at the University of Minnesota (n= 91). Nonrelapse mortality, relapse and disease-free survival were similar in the 2 groups. Multivariate analyses, showed more rapid neutrophil (hazard ratio [HR], .6; 95% confidence interval [CI], .45 to .80; P= .0006) and platelet recovery (HR, .59; 95% CI, .43 to.83; P= .002) after the BU-ATG-based conditioning and sUCBT. Although there was a lower risk of acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) grade II to IV (HR, 2.81; 95% CI, 1.75 to 4.35; P < .001) after BU-ATG and sUCBT, the incidences of grade III to IV acute and chronic GVHD were similar between the 2 groups. Regarding disease-specific outcomes, disease-free survival in both acute myeloid leukemia and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients were not significantly different; however, a significantly lower relapse rate was found in patients with ALL treated with TBI and dUCBT (HR, .3; 95% CI, .12 to .84; P= .02). In the context of these specific treatment platforms, our study demonstrates that sUCB and dUCBT offer similar outcomes.
- Acute leukemia
- UCB transplantation