Natural variants of ELF3 affect thermomorphogenesis by transcriptionally modulating PIF4-dependent auxin response genes

Anja Raschke, Carla Ibañez, Kristian Karsten Ullrich, Muhammad Usman Anwer, Sebastian Becker, Annemarie Glöckner, Jana Trenner, Kathrin Denk, Bernhard Saal, Xiaodong Sun, Min Ni, Seth Jon Davis, Carolin Delker, Marcel Quint

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44 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background: Perception and transduction of temperature changes result in altered growth enabling plants to adapt to increased ambient temperature. While PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR4 (PIF4) has been identified as a major ambient temperature signaling hub, its upstream regulation seems complex and is poorly understood. Here, we exploited natural variation for thermo-responsive growth in Arabidopsis thaliana using quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis. Results: We identified GIRAFFE2.1, a major QTL explaining ~18 % of the phenotypic variation for temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation in the Bay-0 x Sha recombinant inbred line population. Transgenic complementation demonstrated that allelic variation in the circadian clock regulator EARLY FLOWERING3 (ELF3) is underlying this QTL. The source of variation could be allocated to a single nucleotide polymorphism in the ELF3 coding region, resulting in differential expression of PIF4 and its target genes, likely causing the observed natural variation in thermo-responsive growth. Conclusions: In combination with other recent studies, this work establishes the role of ELF3 in the ambient temperature signaling network. Natural variation of ELF3-mediated gating of PIF4 expression during nightly growing periods seems to be affected by a coding sequence quantitative trait nucleotide that confers a selective advantage in certain environments. In addition, natural ELF3 alleles seem to differentially integrate temperature and photoperiod information to induce architectural changes. Thus, ELF3 emerges as an essential coordinator of growth and development in response to diverse environmental cues and implicates ELF3 as an important target of adaptation.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number197
JournalBMC plant biology
Volume15
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 14 2015

Keywords

  • Ambient temperature signaling
  • Auxin
  • ELF3
  • PIF4
  • Thermomorphogenesis

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