Background: Tracheostomy is an important adjunct for lung transplant patients requiring prolonged ventilation. We explored the effects of post-transplant tracheostomy on survival and bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome after lung transplant. Methods: A retrospective, single center analysis was performed on all lung transplant recipients during the Lung Allocation Score (LAS) era. Risk factors for post-transplant tracheostomy or death within 30 days were assessed. Kaplan-Meier estimates and Cox proportional hazards models were used to examine the association between tracheostomy within 30 days after transplant and survival at 1 and 3 years. A total of 403 patients underwent single or bilateral lung transplant between May 2005 and February 2016 with complete data for 352 cases, and 35 patients (9.9%) underwent tracheostomy or died (N = 10, 2.8%) within 30 days. Results: In adjusted analyses, primary graft dysfunction grade 3 (PGD3) was associated with a composite end point of tracheostomy or death within 30 days (HR 3.11 (1.69, 5.71), P-value <.001). Tracheostomy within 30 days was associated with decreased survival at 1(HR 4.25 [1.75, 10.35] P-value =.001) and 3 years (HR 2.74 [1.30, 5.76], P-value =.008), as well as decreased bronchiolitis obliterans (BOS)-free survival at 1 (HR 1.87 [1.02, 3.41] P-value =.042) and 3 years (HR 2.15 [1.33, 3.5], P-value =.002). Conclusion: Post-transplant tracheostomy is a marker for advanced lung allograft dysfunction with significant reduction in long-term overall and BOS-free survival.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Contributions by Drs. Brown and Rudser were supported in part by award UL1TR002494 from the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences of the National Institutes of Health Award. The content is solely the responsibility of the authors and does not necessarily represent the official views of the National Institutes of Health. Jeanne Traaseth assisted in editing and preparation of the manuscript.
The authors of this manuscript have conflicts of interest to disclose as described by the American Journal of Transplantation. Dr Huddleston has received grant support from TransMedics (Andover, MA) for the INSPIRE and EXPAND I and II Trials related to ex vivo lung perfusion. Dr Loor has received funding from TransMedics (Andover, MA) for the INSPIRE and EXPAND I and II Trials related to ex vivo lung perfusion.
© 2019 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd