Advances in the treatment of childhood cancers have greatly improved survivorship. Success has not come without cost, however, as survivors are at risk for late effects of treatment, including neurocognitive late effects (e.g., difficulties with thinking and reasoning). In the advent of chemotherapy-only protocols, researchers are examining neurocognitive sequelae of these agents to understand the specific role of chemotherapy in neurocognitive changes and the mechanism through which these occur. In this review, we examine the state of the literature on neurocognitive late effects after chemotherapy and their proposed neural mechanisms.
- Late effects