New Guinea has the world’s richest island flora

Rodrigo Cámara-Leret, David G. Frodin, Frits Adema, Christiane Anderson, Marc S. Appelhans, George Argent, Susana Arias Guerrero, Peter Ashton, William J. Baker, Anders S. Barfod, David Barrington, Renata Borosova, Gemma L.C. Bramley, Marie Briggs, Sven Buerki, Daniel Cahen, Martin W. Callmander, Martin Cheek, Cheng Wei Chen, Barry J. ConnMark J.E. Coode, Iain Darbyshire, Sally Dawson, John Dransfield, Clare Drinkell, Brigitta Duyfjes, Atsushi Ebihara, Zacky Ezedin, Long Fei Fu, Osia Gideon, Deden Girmansyah, Rafaël Govaerts, Helen Fortune-Hopkins, Gustavo Hassemer, Alistair Hay, Charlie D. Heatubun, D. J.Nicholas Hind, Peter Hoch, Peter Homot, Peter Hovenkamp, Mark Hughes, Matthew Jebb, Laura Jennings, Tiberius Jimbo, Michael Kessler, Ruth Kiew, Sandra Knapp, Penniel Lamei, Marcus Lehnert, Gwilym P. Lewis, Hans Peter Linder, Stuart Lindsay, Yee Wen Low, Eve Lucas, Jeffrey P. Mancera, Alexandre K. Monro, Alison Moore, David J. Middleton, Hidetoshi Nagamasu, Mark F. Newman, Eimear Nic Lughadha, Pablo H.A. Melo, Daniel J. Ohlsen, Caroline M. Pannell, Barbara Parris, Laura Pearce, Darin S. Penneys, Leon R. Perrie, Peter Petoe, Axel Dalberg Poulsen, Ghillean T. Prance, J. Peter Quakenbush, Niels Raes, Michele Rodda, Zachary S. Rogers, André Schuiteman, Pedro Schwartsburd, Robert W. Scotland, Mark P. Simmons, David A. Simpson, Peter Stevens, Michael Sundue, Weston Testo, Anna Trias-Blasi, Ian Turner, Timothy Utteridge, Lesley Walsingham, Bruce L. Webber, Ran Wei, George D. Weiblen, Maximilian Weigend, Peter Weston, Willem de Wilde, Peter Wilkie, Christine M. Wilmot-Dear, Hannah P. Wilson, John R.I. Wood, Li Bing Zhang, Peter C. van Welzen

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


New Guinea is the world’s largest tropical island and has fascinated naturalists for centuries1,2. Home to some of the best-preserved ecosystems on the planet3 and to intact ecological gradients—from mangroves to tropical alpine grasslands—that are unmatched in the Asia-Pacific region4,5, it is a globally recognized centre of biological and cultural diversity6,7. So far, however, there has been no attempt to critically catalogue the entire vascular plant diversity of New Guinea. Here we present the first, to our knowledge, expert-verified checklist of the vascular plants of mainland New Guinea and surrounding islands. Our publicly available checklist includes 13,634 species (68% endemic), 1,742 genera and 264 families—suggesting that New Guinea is the most floristically diverse island in the world. Expert knowledge is essential for building checklists in the digital era: reliance on online taxonomic resources alone would have inflated species counts by 22%. Species discovery shows no sign of levelling off, and we discuss steps to accelerate botanical research in the ‘Last Unknown’8.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)579-583
Number of pages5
Issue number7822
StatePublished - Aug 27 2020

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
Acknowledgements We thank the collectors, herbarium and database curators and colleagues at our institutions for support and discussions; J. Bascompte for feedback on a previous draft; and I. Cámara Leret for the design of Fig. 3. R.C.-L. and P.C.v.W. received funding from the Royal Society International Exchanges (grant IE 170241, ‘Building the New Guinea Research Team’); A.S.B. acknowledges financial support from the Carlsberg Foundation and the Danish Research Council; L.-F.F. acknowledges the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant 31570307); G.H. acknowledges the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) for a post-doctoral fellowship (process 153430/2018-4); S.K. was supported by the US National Science Foundation (grant DEB-1457366); Y.W.L is funded by the National Parks Board, Singapore under a postgraduate research scholarship; M.L. received funding from the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (LE 1826/3-1) and Synthesys (GB-TAF-6305); P.H.A.M. acknowledges the São Paulo Research Foundation – FAPESP (grant 2015/13112-7 and 2018/09379-6); D.S.P. received funding from the US National Science Foundation (grant DEB-1754667); the contributions of G.D.W. to the project were supported by the US National Science Foundation (grants DEB-0515678, DEB-0816749 and DEB-0841885); and M.H. and H.P.W. received funding from the Edinburgh Botanic Garden (Sibbald) Trust and the M. L. MacIntyre Begonia Trust. The Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh is supported by the Scottish Government’s Rural and Environmental Science and Analytical Services Division.

Publisher Copyright:
© 2020, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.

PubMed: MeSH publication types

  • Historical Article
  • Journal Article
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

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