While open surgical resection for medically refractory epilepsy remains the gold standard in current neurosurgical practice, modern techniques have targeted areas for improvement over open surgical resection. This review focuses on how a variety of these new techniques are attempting to address these various limitations. Stereotactic electroencephalography offers the possibility of localizing deep epileptic foci, improving upon subdural grid placement which limits localization to neocortical regions. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) and stereotactic radiosurgery can minimally or non-invasively ablate specific regions of interest, with near real-time feedback for laser interstitial thermal therapy. Finally, neurostimulation offers the possibility of seizure reduction without needing to ablate or resect any tissue. However, because these techniques are still being evaluated in current practice, there are no evidence-based guidelines for their use, and more research is required to fully evaluate their proper role in the current management of medically refractory epilepsy.
- Laser interstitial thermal therapy
- Medically refractory epilepsy
- Responsive neurostimulation
- Stereotactic electroencephalography
- Stereotactic radiosurgery