Purpose: To describe a diagnostic protocol, surveillance and treatment guidelines, genetic counseling considerations and long-term follow-up data elements developed in preparation for X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD) newborn screening in New York State. Methods: A group including the director from each regional NYS inherited metabolic disorder center, personnel from the NYS Newborn Screening Program, and others prepared a follow-up plan for X-ALD NBS. Over the months preceding the start of screening, a series of conference calls took place to develop and refine a complete newborn screening system from initial positive screen results to long-term follow-up. Results: A diagnostic protocol was developed to determine for each newborn with a positive screen whether the final diagnosis is X-ALD, carrier of X-ALD, Zellweger spectrum disorder, acyl CoA oxidase deficiency or D-bifunctional protein deficiency. For asymptomatic males with X-ALD, surveillance protocols were developed for use at the time of diagnosis, during childhood and during adulthood. Considerations for timing of treatment of adrenal and cerebral disease were developed. Conclusion: Because New York was the first newborn screening laboratory to include X-ALD on its panel, and symptoms may not develop for years, long-term follow-up is needed to evaluate the presented guidelines.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Dr. Raymond has previously received funding from the NIH and foundations to study newborn screening for ALD. The rest of the authors declare no conflict of interest.
© 2015 Elsevier Inc.
Copyright 2016 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.
- Adrenal insufficiency
- Genetic counseling
- Newborn screening
- Peroxisomal disorders