By using degenerate primers deduced from conserved patterns in the flavivirus polymerase gene, a novel RNA virus was discovered in Rhipicephalus ticks sampled from members of the family Bovidae in Senegal. It was named Ngoye virus (NGOV) after the location from which it was isolated. Viral particles could be observed by electron microscopy, but isolation in vertebrate or invertebrate cell lines or by intracerebral infection of newborn mice remained unsuccessful. This is atypical of recognized arboviruses. The characterization of 4176 nt of the non-structural genes revealed that NGOV is a novel flavivirus species. It forms a distinct phylogenetic lineage related distantly to previously identified members of the genus Flavivirus. Analysis of genetic data suggested that the processing of the NGOV polyprotein and the organization of its replication complex are similar to those of flaviviruses. Together with other recent data, these findings suggest that a large number of viruses related distantly to 'classical' arthropod-borne flaviviruses remain to be discovered.