Nitric oxide formation in an iron oxide pellet rotary kiln furnace

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A one-dimensional numerical model was developed to simulate the effects of heat and mass transfer on the formation of oxides of nitrogen (NOx) in a rotary kiln furnace for iron oxide pellet induration. The modeled kiln has a length-to-diameter ratio of approximately seven. The principal mechanism of heat transfer is radiation from the flame, which was described by the net radiation method. The well known Zeldovich mechanism was used to predict thermal NOx generation. Temperature fluctuations in the vicinity of the flame were estimated with a clipped Gaussian probability density function. The thermal energy and mass balance model equations were solved numerically. The model is capable of predicting temperature profiles and NOx production rates in agreement with observed plant performance. The model was used to explore the effects of process changes on the total NOx formation in the kiln. It was concluded that the gas temperature as well as the partial pressure of oxygen in the process gases controls the rate of NOx formation. Lowering the temperature of the kiln gases by increasing the secondary air flow rates requires simultaneously decreasing the pellet production rate in order to maintain the pellet temperatures needed for blast furnace conditions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)44-51
Number of pages8
JournalJournal of the Air and Waste Management Association
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 1998
Externally publishedYes

Bibliographical note

Funding Information:
This work was sponsored by the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources in cooperation with the Minnesota Iron Ore Cooperative Research Committee.


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