We address the noninvasive temperature estimation from pulse-echo radio frequency signals from standard diagnostic ultrasound imaging equipment. In particular, we investigate the use of a high-resolution spectral estimation method for tracking frequency shifts at two or more harmonic frequencies associated with temperature change. The new approach, employing generalized second-order statistics, is shown to produce superior frequency shift estimates when compared to conventional high-resolution spectral estimation methods Seip and Ebbini (1995). Furthermore, temperature estimates from the new algorithm are compared with results from the more commonly used echo shift method described in Simon et al. (1998).
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Manuscript received December 1, 2003; revised May 31, 2004. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and in part by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). Asterisk indicates corresponding author. *A. Nasiri Amini is with the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN 55455 USA (e-mail: email@example.com).
- Diagnostic ultrasound
- Maximum entropy
- Spectral analysis