Objectives: Dental patient-reported outcome measures (dPROMs) can be differentiated into outcome measures for all oral diseases, so-called disease-generic dPROMs, and measures for specific oral diseases, so-called disease-specific dPROMs. The aim of this systematic review was to identify the psychometrically validated nonmalignant disease-specific dPROMs for adult patients and the dental patient-reported outcomes (dPROs) they measure. Methods: This systematic review searched Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane databases along with hand searching, through July 28, 2020, to identify original articles of English language, multi-item dPROMs for adult dental patients with a specific oral disease, condition, or oral manifestations of systemic diseases. We analyzed the questionnaires for content commonalities, the reference or recall period, and the dimensionality. Results: We retrieved 4228 unique references and identified 34 questionnaires; of which, 31 questionnaires captured impacts from oral diseases or conditions and three from oral manifestations of systemic diseases. All questionnaires together contained 102 dPROMs, measuring 75 dPROs. Oral health–related quality of life was a broader dPRO, which was measured by 24 dPROMs. The 74 narrower dPROs were measured by 78 dPROMs. The dPRO names suggested that essentially four dPROs were measured: Oral Function (N = 19), Orofacial Pain (N = 7), Orofacial Appearance (N = 11), and Psychosocial Impact (N = 37). Conclusions: Many psychometrically validated tools (N = 102) are available to measure the impact of specific nonmalignant oral disease on patients. While these tools intend to measure the particular patient-perceived impact profile of the oral disease, all tools measure in essence only four, more general concepts – the dimensions of oral health–related quality of life.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
We thank Ms. Kathleen M. Patka, Executive Office and Administrative Specialist, Division of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, for proofreading the manuscript. We thank Mrs. Danna R. Paulson, MSDH, Division of Dental Hygiene, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, Dr. Swaha Pattanaik, DDS, MPH, PhD, Division of Oral Medicine, School of Dentistry, University of Minnesota, and Mr. Michael Vu, a student at the University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA, for providing valuable comments and corrections to this manuscript. M.T. John was supported by the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research of the National Institutes of Health, USA, under the award Number R01DE028059.
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- Oral disease
- Oral health
- Quality of life