Background: Checkpoint inhibitors and currently approved cellular products for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer have not resulted in revolutionary changes in outcomes compared to other solid tumors. Much of this lack of progress is attributed to the unique tumor microenvironment of prostate cancer that is often immunologically cold and immunosuppressive. These unique conditions emphasize the need for novel therapeutic options. In this review, we will discuss progress made in design of T- and NK cell immune engagers in addition to chimeric antigen receptor products specifically designed for prostate cancer that are currently under investigation in clinical trials. Methods: We searched peer-reviewed literature on the PubMed and the ClinicalTrials.gov databases for active clinical trials using the terms “bispecific T-cell engager,” “bispecific killer engager,” “trispecific killer engager,” “chimeric antigen receptor,” “metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer,” and “neuroendocrine prostate cancer.” Results: Ten bispecific T-cell engager studies and nine chimeric antigen receptor-based products were found. Published data were compiled and presented based on therapeutic class. Conclusions: Multiple immune engagers and cell therapies are in the development pipeline and demonstrate promise to address barriers to better outcomes for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer patients.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Acknowledgements NAZ is supported by 2T32HL007062 Hematology Research Training Program T32, University of Minnesota (PI: Dr Gregory Vercellotti) and an Academic Investment Education Program grant from the University of Minnesota Medical School. CJR is the BJ Kennedy Chair of Clinical Medical Oncology at the University of Minnesota Medical School.
© 2021, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature Limited.
PubMed: MeSH publication types
- Journal Article