The relative potency and tolerability of multidrug regimens used to treat infants and children infected with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) are largely unknown. In Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Protocol 377, 181 infants and children were assigned to receive stavudine (d4T) plus nevirapine (NVP) and ritonavir (RTV); d4T plus lamivudine (3TC) and nelfinavir (NFV); d4T plus NVP and NFV; or d4T plus 3TC, NVP, and NFV. Eleven additional children received d4T and NVP plus NFV given twice daily. All subjects had not previously received protease inhibitors or nonnucleoside reverse-transcriptase inhibitors and all had been immunologically stable while receiving reverse-transcriptase inhibitor therapy. After 48 weeks of therapy, 17 (41%) of 41 subjects receiving d4T-NVP-RTV, 13 (30%) of 44 receiving d4T-NVP-NFV, 21 (42%) of 50 receiving d4T-3TC and NFV (3 times daily), and 22 (52%) of 42 receiving d4T-3TC-NVP-NFV were still receiving their assigned therapy and had HIV-1 RNA suppression to ≤400 copies/mL. These regimens were similar in their drug activity, but the 4-drug regimen offered slightly more durable suppression of viremia.
Bibliographical noteFunding Information:
Financial support: Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group of the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases; Pediatric/Perinatal HIV Clinical Trials Network of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development; Abbott Laboratories; Agouron Pharmaceuticals; Boehringer-Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals; Bristol-Myers Squibb; and Glaxo-Wellcome. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (grant AI-41110). P.K. is an Elizabeth Glaser Scientist supported by the Elizabeth Glaser Pediatric AIDS Foundation.