The use of numerical simulation as a means to predict the outcome of transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT) is set forth in detail. The simulation was carried out as a case study of a specific TUMT procedure. The selection of the case study was based on the availability of extensive medical records which documented an extraordinary application of TUMT. Predictions were made of the time-varying temperature patterns within the prostate, the bladder, the sphincter, the pelvic floor, and the fat and connective tissue which envelop these organs. These temperature patterns provided the basis of maps which highlighted those locations where necrosis occurred. An injury integral was used to predict the extent of the necrotic tissue produced by the therapy. It was found that, for the specific case being considered, necrosis occurred not only within the prostate but also extended to the neck of the bladder and to the fatty tissue. A special feature of the simulation was the accounting of the liquid-to-vapor phase change of the interstitial water. The vapor generated by the phase change is believed to significantly enlarge the region of necrosis. By the same token, the vapor pressure is expected to cause motion of the high-temperature liquid to deep-tissue regions. The damage predicted by the numerical simulation was compared, in detail, with post-operative medical examinations and found to be corroborated.
- Benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH)
- Bioheat transfer
- Multi-organ simulation
- Phase change
- Transurethral microwave thermotherapy (TUMT)